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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 



EVOLUTION THEORY 



^. 



OF THE 

ORIGIN OF WORLDS, 

The causes which produced the peculiarities 
and motions of the solar system, in- 
CLUDING THE Asteroids, rings of 
Saturn, moons of Uranus, 
meteors, and comets, 

CAUSE OF THE SUN'S LIGHT, HEAT AND SPOTS, 
THE ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF HEAT AND LIGHT. 

BY 

SETH K. WARREN. 
Lake Geneva, Wis., 1888 



/'^7'^ 




Entered, aeeonling t() Act of Congress, in tlio 

year 1888, by 

SETH K. VVARREX, 

In Tlie office of the Librarian of Congress jit 

Wasliington, D. C. 






LAKE GENEVA NEWS JOB PRINT. 



EVOLUTION THEORY. 

Tliis theory accounts for tlie formation of tlie 
sun, for the formation of ail the phiiiets, and for 
their positions. It accounts for their revolving 
around the sun, for their rotating on their axes, 
and for their orbits being elliptical. It accounts 
for their motion in their orbits decreasing as they 
increase their distance from the sun, for their or- 
bits being uearly on a plane, perpendicular to the 
axis, and over the sun's equator, and for their rotat- 
ing on their axes from west to east. It explains the 
cause of the sun's being h cool planet and ac- 
counts for the sun's emitting liglit, and the plan- 
ets not doing so. It explains tlie cause of the 
planets having once been meited by fervent heat. 
It explains the cause of the moon liaving no 
water, or atmosphere, the cause of the moon not 
rotating on an axis, and accounts for the incli- 
nation of the earth's axis to the plane of its orbit, 
and for circling of the earth's poles. It accounts 
for the moons of Uranus revolving from east to 
w^est contrary to those of all other planets; ac- 
counts for the asteroids; accounts for Saturn's 
rings; accounts for the formation of moons. It 
explains the cause of the superior planets having 
less specific gravity than others, and of moons 
having less specific gravity than their superiors. 



aiul accounts for tlie light of the sun, and tlie 
spots on the sun, and for the sun's rotation. 
It explains the cause of the oblateness of the pri- 
mary planets, and of moons being perfect spheres 
without oblateness. It also accounts for the sun's 
corona as seen in total eclipses. It explains the 
cause of meteors and aerolites, and accounts for 
the comets and their parabolic and hyperbolic or- 
bits. It accounts for the zodiacal light. It ac 
counts for the creation of all worlds, and ac- 
counts for nebulse. It explains the cause of heat 
and light; a cause t!»at will in the course of time 
bring all created worlds into chaotic nebulae, and 
in the course of time will reform them into new 
worlds of light and motion. 



CHAPTER I. 

The present theory of the formation of worlds 
from nebulous matter, was first proposed by Sir 
^Ailliam Herschel; but he only applied it to the 
stellar systems and suns. He did not speculate 
on the formation of solar systems by the separa- 
tion of nebulous globes into rings, which coalesced 
into planets. 

Nebulae are planetary matter, so expanded by 
intense heat that the minute particles are dis- 
solved into atoms, and diffused through space; 
the ultimate particles being held asunder by the 
expansion of heat. 

This theory is, that in the beginning, all mat- 
ter was in nebulae, and was diffused throughout 
infinite space; and that by cooling and condens- 
ing, it finally broke up into immense masses; and 
that each of these masses resulted in a stellar 
.system, and that our stellar system at first was a 
very irregular nebulous mass, that it subsided 
into a globe, rotated abandoned rings one after 
another, and that these rings broke up into smaller 
masses one of which became our solar system. 
Such a formation of stars as this theory claims, 
would be an impossible resultant from the laws 



aaci forces of nature, which it is here claimed 
would produce such an effect. 

All the stars which we behold iu a clear night, 
belong to our system of stars, which is called a 
stellar system, or a system of stars. This system 
of stars is surrounded by immense space; and far 
away in the immensity of space are other systems 
of stars, which can only be seen through powerful 
telescopes. 

The powers and principal forces of nature, 
which formed and govern the planets, and sys- 
tems of worlds, are. Gravity, Inertia, Electricity, 
Heat, Light, Ether and Resistance. 

Gravitation is strictly a conservative power, 
though many physicists claim that it is also a 
conversional power. 

Sir Isaac Newton claimed that gravity was not 
a property of matter, but a force acting mechan- 
ically on matter from without. This reasoning 
must have arisen from his supposing that gravity 
lost its power of attraction when the matter was 
in nebulae, which state was caused by heat. We 
know that gravity does not lose any of its at- 
tractive power by reason of heat. A bar of iron 
heated to the state of fusion w^eighs the same as 
before. 

Gravitation must have been coexistent with 



3 

and as indestructible as matter. And ii would be 
au unwarrantable hypothesis to suppose that one 
w^as conserved, while the other was converted, or 
annihilated. 

Gravity is contained in every atom of matter, 
and heat only separates the atoms by expansion; 
it has no other effect. Heat does not repel, it sim- 
ply expands matter. The attractive power of 
gravity was the same, while the particles of mat- 
ter were held asunder by intense heat, as it is to- 
day, in particles of matter in a condensed form. 

Gravity is a creative power, which underlies all 
the atomic forces of matter, and is the principle 
of matter. Its power radiates through the realms 
of space, and its connections extend through the 
universe of matter, and is a continuous, and never 
ceasing momentum force to all matter, and is only 
held in check by the force of resistance. 

Inertia is an essential property of matter, but 
its only power consists in its resistance to force, 
and its conservation of force. If matter is at rest, 
it resists the power to move it, but if the matter is 
forced into motion, it resists the power to stop it. 
This negative powder is the great regulator which 
balances and sustains the universe. The universal 
diffusion of matter throughout all space, caused 
by intense heat, at the beginning of the creation, 



4 

i-; now held to be the most reasonable theory of 
creation. 

Let us trace the effect that W()uhl be pre h1 need 
by the pliysical powers from matter in this nebu- 
lons state. All the matter contained in all the 
systems was in an inert state; but, as soon as the 
heat radiated away, the expanded mass would 
commence contracting through the force of grav- 
ity, and this would produce motion throughout 
the entire mass. And, throngh a course of time, 
it would be attracted to the most dense centers, 
and the masses created by this contracting would 
separate from each other a long way, probably as 
far as we are from the nearest fixed star. These 
masses would, in the course of time, contract 
down to gh)bes, if their mutual attraction did not 
bring them to a common center before; and here 
they must remain until they are finally all drawn 
togetlier by their own attraction. 

The advocates of this theory claim, that their 
mutual attraction would sustain them in their 
positions, the same as it does the sun, planets and 
stars. Bnt the sun, stars and planets are not held 
in their positions by universal gravitation alone; 
they have an equalizing power, which just bal- 
ances the power of mutual attraction, and which 
sustains them in their positions. This power is 



inertia, and is called the centrifugal force; but 
the centrifugal force is only inertia, resisting the 
power of gravity; in mechanics it is its resist- 
ance to the motive power. 

If all matter was inert at the beginning, the 
physical forces of nature could never have pro- 
duced the motions of the universe. Thousands of 
star clusters have been discovered, far greater 
than our system of stars, with an immense space 
surrounding them; and from our standpoint it ap- 
pears as though the center was a mass of stars. 
This of course would be a natural consequence of 
looking through a cluster of stars in a globular 
form, but it proves the fact, that mutual attraction 
alone could not sustain them in such a form; for 
there is an inside and an outside, and the outside 
stars could not sustain themselves from the in- 
side attraction, for there is nothing but space on 
one side, and millions of stars on the other side of 
them. 

This is the case with our stellar system. Our 
sun is near the center, and our system of stars oc- 
cupy space in the form of a broad ring, and it 
would be impossible, according to the laws of 
universal gravity, to sustain them by mutual at- 
traction. In order to sustain their positions, they 
must have a great velocity around a central point 



6 

wliicli they could not acquire froui such forma- 
tions through any known powers of nature. 

The advocates of this theory do not attempt to 
prove their assumptions, in regard to the cause of 
the rotation of planets. They simply say that, by 
the attraction ot the particles of matter, through 
cooling and condensing, the nebulous masses ac- 
quired a rotary motion upon their axes of rota- 
tion, which was, in their center of magnitude, 
slow at first; but increasing their velocity as they 
became smaller; and that these rotations com- 
menced, while the nebulous masses were less 
dense than hydrogen gas. 

The laws of motion require all moving sub- 
stances to follow straight lines, unless continu- 
ally deflected; and as all of the lines of attrac- 
tion, and condensing are directed to the center, I 
fail to see how they can produce a curvilinear 
motion. Again, the attraction and condensing 
are equal at every radiant, lineal, distant point. 
Then again, it would be impossible to produce the 
centrifugal force, in so light a fluid, through and 
by itself, without some outside power. 

This theory has a chain of inconsistencies 
from the start to the end. The first assumption 
is, that in the beginning, all creation was ethe- 
realized into nebulae, through intense heat, but 



there is not a word said as to the origin of tliis 
heat. If there existed such an intense heat, then 
there must have been a cause for this heat. By 
well known physical laws, we know that heat can 
not produce itself, and can only be produced by 
force. Then this could not have been the be- 
ginning. 

The next assumption is, that this intense lieat 
filled all space; but, through the course of time, 
radiated away. \ow, if all space was filled with 
heat, millions of times greater than any heat that 
we know of, where can a place be found for this 
heat to radiate to? Heat is only propagated by 
conduction and radiation, and can only be con- 
ducted through, or radiated to a cooler place, or 
thing. 



CHAPTER II. 
So far we have been reviewing the tlieory of 
the formation of siderial suns. We will now re- 
view the theory of the formation of the solar sys- 
tem. La Place and Sweden borg endorsed tlie the- 
ory of Herschel, and they took for granted that 
the sun and stars were already formed, and re- 
volving around their axes of rotation. They as- 
sumed, that the sun's mass, by cooling and con- 
densing, increased its rotation, thereby increasing 
the centrifugal force at the equator, until the 
mass formed a ridge over the equator. And when 
the mass had contracted down to the orbit of Nep- 
tune, a fluid zone, or ring was detached from the 
equator, and left revolving in space, by the mass 
shrinking away from it. And, that the ring broke 
up and coalesced into a globe, which formed tlie 
planet Neptune. And that Neptune, in its turn, 
formed its satellite, as it was itself formed. The 
sun, after contracting down to the orbit of Uranus, 
abandoned another ring, and kept contracting 
down to its present size, leaving a ring for each 
planet. And the planets that have several moons 
formed them by a series of rings. 

I will here quote from one of the philosophers, 



writing upon this nebular theory. He says, "Our 
solar system, when, in the condition of a very rare, 
nebulous mas?, was not very irregular in shape. 
Soon it became round, rotated, and abandoned 
rings. First its rotation was extremely slow; 
then by degrees it increased its velocity to 12,500 
miles per hour when the ring forming Neptune 
was abandoned. Its speed was still increasing 
under the continued action of gravity, and at 
last, after parting many rings it reached the enor- 
mous and almost incredible velocity of 110,OCKj 
miles an hour. Then the ring resulting in Mer- 
cury was parted; but no more rings were parted 
because no greater velocity of rotation was 
reached. The ring from the nebulous mass giv- 
ing origin to our earth, broke, like all the other 
solar rings, and became a contracting, rotating, 
nebulous globe. This latter nebulous globe was 
large enough to abandon only a single ring, and 
that after subsiding into a rotating globe, became 
our moon." Again he says, "The sun, when at the 
planet Neptune, was twelve millions of times 
lighter than hydrogen gas, and when at Mercury, 
it was thirty times less dense than hydrogen. 

This unreasonable, and nonsensical theory of 
the first creation of the universe, with all the 
various motions and peculiarities, is now being 



10 

taught in ali of the higher institutinns of ](»{irn- 
ing, throughout the civilized worhl. All that has 
been written in support of this theory, does not 
correspond with physical laws, or facts. Thisneh- 
ulous mass, though millions of times lighter tlian 
our atmosphere, would be drawn to a common 
center through the attraction of gravity, and as 
the particles were free to move, it would take the 
form of a globe, as this is the only form, that has 
all its surface at an equal distance from its center. 
To produce a curvilinear motion of this fluid 
matter, there must be an angular motion; and all 
the motion, that tliis shrinking and contracting 
fluid mass could have was linear, converging to 
its center. To produce a rotary motion there 
must be eccentric matter; which could not hap- 
pen until the particles cohered together, and co- 
Jiesion is not a property of fluid matter. And this 
eccentric matter must be acted upon by some out- 
side power. 

To illustrate this law, we will suppose the 
earth without motion; that is, the earth stood still, 
and that all of the outside power of attraction 
was shut off, and that the earth was formed of 
lead and cork; one side was formed of lead, and 
the other of cork. The result would be that the 
earth would not move. It would make no differ- 



11 

piice whether this trausforaiatiou was instanta- 
neous, or millions of years in forming. The heavy 
side could not drop, and cause it to turn over, be- 
cause there wouhl be nothing for it to drop to, or 
to cause it to drop. Its center of gravity would 
be clianged to the heavy side, far from its center 
of magnitude, and its own power of attraction 
would be exerted through straight lines, toward 
the center of gravity, and no angular lines could 
be formed, for the power of its own gravity to act 
upon. Xow if we give the earth a linear motion 
from tlie sun, of sixty-eight thousand miles per 
hour, and open the gates, and let in the outside 
attraction, the heavy side will at once turn toward 
the sun, with a momentum that will carry it past 
the point of resistance, and the earth would spin 
around on its axis like a top; and its poles would 
be at right angles to its line of direction. If the 
earth had had no linear motion, the heavy side 
would have turned toward the sun, but would not 
have had sufficient momentum to have carried it 
past the point of resistance, and it would have vi- 
brated like a pendulum. 



12 



CHAPTER III. 

Tliere is but one power that is stable, un- 
changeable, the same today, yesterday and for- 
ever, omnipotent and omnipresent, no beginning, 
no ending. The Eternal, who was, and is God, 
the Almighty Architect, Builder, and Ruler of all 
created beings and things. All else is changeable 
and unstable. Every thing that had a beginning 
must have an ending, for such is the law^ of des- 
tiny. Infinite space was not open by chance, but 
was a part of the original design of creation, and 
all creations are governed by the same laws that 
produced them. 

I cannot see how universal gravitation could 
have produced the positions and motions of the 
universe. Hence lam led to believe that in the 
beginning, God created space, and filled it with 
worlds, and placed them in their positions and 
gave them light and heat, and their motions. And 
fitted them for vegetable and animal life, suitable 
to each planet. iVnd, underlying all possible 
forms of creation, he placed the principle of the 
never ending change of matter. No one has ever 
tried to explain wliat matter is, or how it originat- 
ed. Ethereal space, we know, is not a vacuum, 



13 

then it must be a substance. Therefore, which is 
the more reasonable hypothesis, to suppose that 
the Creator, after creating matter, melted it into 
ethereal atoms, which would be against all natural 
laws; or, that He should first form it into worlds, 
with light, heat, and motions. 

But here nature drops the mystic vail between 
mind, matter, and eternity; and here we must rest 
contented until the connection is broken, and the 
mind is freed from matter. Man w^as the last 
crowning effort of nature and was formed au in- 
telligent being that he might understand nature. 
That his thoughts might wander through eternity 
and reflect upon the great First Cause, and ad- 
mire the harmony, grandeur and sublimity of tlie 
stupendous work, and love and enjoy the beauties 
of creation, and love and praise the great De- 
signer, Architect and Builder, Jehovah. 

We find through all the works of nature, that 
all matter is in motion. By the laws of gravity 
and inertia, no matter could remain without mo- 
tion. The rock of Gibralter, though firmly fixed, 
is flying through space at the rate of sixty-eight 
thousand miles per hour. The ^un and its at- 
tendant pianets are moving with great velocity 
through space, in the direction of the constela- 
tion Hercules, and we know that some of the fixed 



14 

stars are moving. In fact if one star moves the 
whole system mast also move; otherwise it would 
disarrange the power of attraction, and throw the 
whole system out of balance, and there would be a 
collision. Many of these stars have been tested, 
and found to be moving through space; which 
proves tliat all planets and nebula are revolving 
around a common center. 

Now, if it could be proven, that through phys- 
ical laws, the existing powers could produce these 
various positions and motions, it would then be a 
reasonable hypothesis to suppose that, in the be- 
ginning, infinite space was an atmosphere of 
atoms without heat. But until some theory is ad- 
vanced, which can show clearly that these natural 
powers could produce this effect; or, that they 
could form solar systems, with all their motions, 
from chaos, we would better follow, and teach the 
biblical account of creation, as it is, even in its 
literal sense, the most reasonable account of crea- 
tion that has ever been written. 

The great Spirit of Nature has endowed us 
with a reasoning power, to separate the true from 
the false, and to sift the good from the bad, and 
has written by the wayside, throughout life's 
course, in unmistakable language, wondrous facts; 
and we are required (or the way would not have 



15 
been open) to exercise our reason in farther in- 
vestigation. There are many facts which plainly 
show that the solar system was once in a state of 
nebula. The main facts are, that different patches 
of nebulse exist in our circle of stars, and the 
spectroscope shows that these masses are filled 
with glowing vapor. And another fact is, that 
stars are continually passing out of sight, while 
new ones are discovered, and another fact is, that 
the earth was once in a state of fusion. 

I will admit the fact that nebula exists in our 
system, in the same form that the nebular theory 
claims that all matter existed in tlie beginning: 
but there is a cause for this now, which did not 
exist in the beginning. I shall hereafter show 
that there is a power at work, vvhich will, after a 
long time, cause all the planets of the solar sys- 
tem to fall to the sun; which will cause a heat 
that will vaporize the whole solar system. And 
that, after remaining in nebula a certain length 
of time, will again be reformed into new worlds 
of heat, light and motion. But this v\ill be better 
understood, after showing a cause which could 
have produced the present formations, and mo- 
tions of the solar system. I shall assume that all 
of the primary planets were thrown from the 
sun's equator by centrifugal force. 



16 

Nebulous matter consists of dense clouds of 
heavy, glowing vapor, and as soon as the heat ra- 
diates into space, it soon contracts into a denser 
form, and, through the course of time, by contin- 
ually cooling and condensing will result in a sun. 

We will suppose that the sun by continual con- 
densing from the nebulous state had after a long 
time arrived at nearly its present state, size and 
density, and had so increased its velocity, that at 
the equator its inertia overcame the power of at- 
traction, and a large mass was detached from the 
equator, and hurled into space. As the first por- 
tion thrown off, would be likely to receive the 
greatest velocity it would form the farthest planet 
from the sun, which is Neptune. And its course 
from the sun to its most distant point would be in 
a winding curvilinear form. It will be readily 
seen that this mass of material from its start 
from the sun would be continually bending to 
the power of the sun's attraction, which would 
cause it to circle; and while circling around the 
sun, it would be continually receding from it, 
with lessening power and speed. And it would 
continue in this course until the powers of grav- 
ity and inertia became balanced, which could not 
take place before one revolution was made, when 
both powers would be in equilibrium. But it could 



17 

not be sustained by the centrifugal force against 
the never ceasing power of the sun's attraction, 
without increasing its velocity, which it would 
now do on its returning course, through the con- 
tinued attraction of gravity, which would draw it 
from a circle to an ellipse, thereby accelerating 
its velocity. 

It would be impossible for a planet to be sus- 
tained in an orbit of a circle by centrifugal force, 
or any other force, or forces of nature. This fact 
will be understood when its momentum is com- 
pared with the force of attraction. The moment- 
um of the planet was greater than the attraction 
of the sun, while it had power to recede from it; 
but when the planet stopped receding from the 
sun, it was because it had no greater power than 
the attraction. The instant the planet stopped 
receding from the sun, was its first moment of 
equilibrium power and its first revolution. It 
now had conserved power to move in a straight 
line forever, with its present velocity, unless it 
was overpowered or resisted. But it had not the 
power to move, with the same velocity, against 
resistance. And, at the moment of its full power 
with gravity, it met with the same resistance that 
it had met at its first start, which had retarded 
and deflected it from a straight line to a circle. 



18 

and which had eoiitiimally lesst^ued it< speetl: 
and, unless it could increase its moinentnni it 
would eventually fall to the sun. 

This power, Xeptune acquired on its returning 
course by being continually drawn towards the 
sun. This cimtinued drawing towards the sun 
had the same effect of increasing its velocity, as 
though the planet had fallen the same distance 
directly towards the sun. In this way it acquired 
an accelerated velocity, which resisted the power 
of gravity, and carried it hack to tlie p(dnt of 
equilibrium power. 

In this same form were all (►f the planets, 
which revolve around a superior, placed in their 
orbits. It will be seen that the farther a planet's 
orbit is from the sun, the less will be the sun's at- 
tractive power, consequently the slower will be 
its velocity through its orbit, and that the ellipse 
is the only form of a permanent orbit. 

Many suppose that all forms of conic sections 
were adopted by the heavenly bodies for orbits, but 
it would be impossible for a planet to move in a 
circle. 

Comets pass around the sun in parabolic and 
hyperbolic orbits; but never pass around twice in 
the same path. 

All of the primary planets were thrown from 



19 
the sun's equator by centrifugal force, caused by 
the suu's increased equatorial velocity; but with 
different uiouieutuni. Their orbital distance from 
the sun, depended up(ui the amount of force 
Avhicli each planet received at the start; and the 
attraction of the sun brought them around with 
a vehx'ity in proportion to tlie diameters of their 
orbits^ 



20 



CHAPTER IV. 

We have now seen how the phiuets received 
their j^everal distances from the sun, and liow 
they acquired the elliptic form of orbit, and the 
increasing orbital velocity, as their orbits were 
nearer the sun. We will now see how tliey ac- 
quired their present form, and rotary motion 
upon their axes. As all of them received their 
form and motions from the same source, one de- 
scription will answer for all. I will describe the 
earth's formation and motions, as we are better 
acquainted with it than the other planets. 

When the sun's equator threw^ off this mass of 
material, it was not thrown in one solid body, but 
in mountains of chunks and scattering material, 
for tens of thousands of miles, something in the 
shape it would be to take a shovel full of earth 
and chunks of clay, and fling it off; these chunks 
and material would assume a space fifty times 
greater than they occupied upon the start. The 
bursting of a wheel or stone by centrifugal force, 
shows the tendency it has to scatter material. In 
fact, it would be against reason to suppose that 
this matter could be hurled into space by centrif- 
ugal force in any other shape. At a certain 



21 

distance from the sun their own attraction vvoukl 
be thousands of times greater than the attractive 
power of the sun. This attraction would be so 
great that all of the masses and particles of mat- 
ter would rush together with such force that it 
would cause the whole mass of matter to be in- 
stantly melted. 

The masses of matter thrown from the sun's 
equator in irregular shape, rushing through space, 
under so swift a forward motion, against the 
power of the sun's attraction, could not help re- 
volving, and revolve in the direction in which 
they were moving. The fusion of these masses 
must have occurred before the earth reached the 
aphelion of its orbit. Such a transformation of 
so large a body of matter as the earth and moon 
contain, coming together, under such a swift re- 
volving motion, and being instantly melted, and 
formed into a revolving globe, must have caused 
some very high prominences over the equator, by 
reaction of the forces; one of which was thrown 
off by centrifugal force, and became our moon. 

This intense heat vaporized the water, atmos- 
phere and gases, and as heat always radiates to a 
colder place, they were radiated to ethereal space, 
and held in atoms by the radiation of heat from 
the earth. The mass that was thrown off from the 



22 

earth's equator, which became the moon, could 
not have coutaiued any fluids or gases, conse- 
quently the moon does not contain any water, at- 
mosphere or gases. Through the power of the 
earth's attraction and its conserved momentum, 
which it received from the earth, it gradually bent 
to the power of attraction and was sustained in 
its orbit by centrifugal force. All moons were 
created in the same way, and the planets would 
continue to throw them off, until their circumfer- 
ence was so lessened that it diminished the centrif- 
ugal force to such an extent that the attractive 
power was greater than the centrifugal force. 

When the moon was thrown off, from the earth, 
it was instantly formed into a perfect globe. The 
manufacture of shot will illustrate this sudden 
formation. The melted lead is poured into an 
iron sieve, the diameter of the holes being of the 
size which they require the shot to be made. The 
stream of melted lead is at once broken into 
globules, that almost instantly become perfect 
spheres. In order that the shot may get cool and 
hard before reaching the bottom, a high tower is 
erected. 

The moon does not rotate ox ax axis.— The 
moon being formed into a perfect sphere, so 
quickly after leaving the earth, the attraction wa.^ 



23 

not sufficient to cause a rotary motion before it 
formed its center of gravity in its center of mag- 
nitufle, after which it could not revolve. This 
would always keep one side of the moon toward 
the earth, while making its revolution around it; 
the earth being its true center of motion. 

There are five other planets that have moons. 
The names of the planets in their order as they 
recede from the sun are: Mercury, Venus, Earth 
with one moon, next is Mars with two moons, 
then come the Asteroids, the next planet is Jupi- 
ter with four moons, next Saturn with eight 
moons, next Uranus with four moons, next and 
last planet from the sun is Xeptune with one 
moon. This makes twenty moons that we know 
of, and there are probably more. Two of these 
moons revolve around their superiors in less than 
one day; one of them revolves in about seven 
hours, and the others at different times up to our 
moon, which takes 21}4 days to make its revolu- 
tion around its superior. Xow that all of these 
moons should pass around their superiors at dif- 
ferent times and rotate upon an axis in the same 
time that it took to make their revolution around 
their superior would be a coincidence which is not 
warranted by any of the physical laws of nature. 

We find several peculiarities in the formation 



24 

of the solar system, for which no theory has ever 
been able to give a reasonable cause. The first 
peculiar formation of planets from the sun is the 
asteroids, or minor planets. There are probably 
several hundred of them, two hundred having been 
discovered. They could not have been thrown 
from the sun in that form, for the space which 
they occupy would, if a line were drawn from 
each one to the sun, bring their lines nearly paral- 
lel for millions of miles, and their own attraction 
would have drawn them, to one common center; 
nor could they be the effect of a planet exploded 
by combustion, for they revolve from west to east, 
which they could not do, if caused by combustion, 
which would have given them a linear moment- 
um, in all directions, without a central power, ex- 
cept the sun, to curb their directions. Their po- 
sitions in space and different forms of orbits, 
prove the fact that they were thrown into space 
by the bursting of a planet through centrifugal 
force. Their orbits are all included in a space of 
about 150,000,000 miles, and their irregular shape 
and form of surface, prove that they were the 
fragments of a broken planet, which had become 
solidified, and that all their motions are from west 
to east proves this fact. 

The next peculiar formation is the rings of 



Saturn. This peculiar formation of rings to a 
planet must have given rise to the tlieory of the 
abandonment of equatorial zones, or rings, to 
planets, while in a fluid state. Now it is a well 
known fact that matter of the earth at the equa- 
tor is lighter than at any other part of its sur- 
face. It a man should weigh 160 pounds at the 
earth's equator and then start toward either pole 
he would continually grow heavier as he ap- 
proached nearer to the pole. This is caused hy 
inertia resisting the power of gravity. If the 
earth's rotating velocity was increased fifteen 
times, the inertia would so overcome the earth's 
power of attraction that the man who started 
from the equator, and gradually grew heavier as 
he receded from the equator, would not now, if he 
returned, weigh one pound, and if the earth's ro- 
tation was increased two or three times more, the 
surface at the equator would be raised up in a 
ridge, independent of the earth's attraction, and 
if its inertia could sustain it, against the whole 
power of the earth's attraction, at a few feet, it 
could sustain itself if the earth contracted and 
shrank out of existence, and if the earth's rotary 
motion was increased a few hundred times it 
would fly to pieces, as did the planet that once 
composed the material of the asteroids and there 



26 

would not be a piece left to mark the spot. 

This is not speculating, not hypothesis, but ac- 
cording to a law of physics. Saturn is over seven 
hundred times larger than the earth and has a 
specific gravity of only one-half the weight of 
water, while the earth has a specific gravity of five 
and one-half times the weight of water. When 
Saturn extended to the outer ring, its diameter 
was 121,390 miles, which is 34,390 miles greater 
than the diameter of Jupiter. This is a low esti- 
mate. Others make the diameter of the outer 
ring 177,000 miles. Saturn's present diameter is 
73,590 miles; distance from planet to inner ring, 
19,000 miles; width of inner ring, 17,(X)0 miles; 
space between the rings, 1,800 miles; width of 
outer ring, 10,000 miles, and it and the rings ro- 
tate in 10^2 hours. This extremely great equa- 
torial velocity, of such light material, must have 
produced great oblateness, and the planet must 
have been in the form of a double convex lens. 
This thin ridge over the equator would be the first 
portion to cool and its particles to cohere. The 
planet's power of attraction on this hardened 
ring was far different from what it would have 
been if the ring had been in the form of a sphere 
at the same distance. The planet's attraction was 
at every radiant point of the hardened ring. 



which bound it like a hoop to a cask. The ring 
by its great centrifugal force, and the attraction 
of the eight moons, which passed around it in 
times varying from less than one, up to eight 
days, made it a self sustaining power, before the 
planet shrank away from it. The planet being in 
a melted state, was by its centrifugal force, soon 
formed in the same shape as before, and so aban- 
doned another hardened and self sustaining ring. 
It is very probable that the interior ring slopes in 
its lower part, which gives the appearance of a 
darker ring underneath. 

The next peculiar formation is the moons of 
Uranus. They move in orbits with an angle of 
78^58' with the ecliptic, and move towards the 
west, conti'ary to all other moons or planets. They 
could not have been formed by eciuatorial velocity, 
and must have been thrown from the planet, when 
the planet was first formed, and caused by an ex- 
plosion of confined gas, or steam, in the interior 
of the planet. This explosion must have been 
caused by large masses of matter, which were 
thrown from the sun's] equator, containing gas. 
or more probably when these large masses came 
together, they overlapped and surrounded a large 
quantity of water, which was instantly vaporized 
into steam, and being confined would hive had 



28 

the power to liave produced this effect. This ex- 
plosion must have thrown the material oblii^uely 
across the planet's equator; which probably oc- 
curred below and about 11^ of the north pole, 
and the matter thrown in a northeasterly di- 
rection . 



29 



CHAPTER V. 

It has been shown how the planets received 
their rotations in the direction, in which they 
were moving, which brought their poles at right 
angles to the plane of their orbits, and that the 
water, atmosphere and gases w^ere expanded into 
atoms and held in space through the radiation of 
heat. The earth was then in ethereal vacuum, same 
as the moon is now, and the elements that radiated 
away could not have been under the influence of 
the earth's rotary motion. As soon as the earth 
cooled sufficiently to produce precipitation, the 
water commenced falling; not as the rain falls, 
but in streams, and without the resistance of the 
atmosphere; and striking the earth's rotary mo. 
tion of over one thousand miles per hour, and 
covering the whole earth with water, causing tidal 
and reactive weaves of immense heights. This, to- 
gether with the force to drive the water to the 
equator, and all the forces, acting upon the ex- 
treme surface, would have produced a power, un- 
der the circumstances, of the earth's surface, to 
have changed the poles from a perpendicular to 
an inclination of 23}^ degrees to the plane of its 
orbit, and through its oblateness would have 



30 

caused the circular motion of its poles. The 
north pole veers 47^ from the north star, and com- 
pletes a revolution in 25,808 years. This cycle of 
time is called the Platonic year. 

It has been stated that a {)lanet could not ac- 
quire a rotary motion while in a fluid state, and 
that it must become solidified in part before it 
could become a rotating globe. All matter is in 
motion around centers, and to cause a rotaiy mo- 
tion to a globe, the matter must be in an eccen- 
tric form, which is acted u[)on by a distant point 
of attraction. A perfect sphere, of eqnal density, 
would not liave an angle, to be acted npoii, by the 
distant central power of attraction. This was 
the case of the moons; they had no protuberance 
and the attractive power of their snperiors was 
equally balanced through tlieir disks. 

The sun's material when in nebula was in mo- 
tion around a central point, and was held by the 
centripetal force, to this central point of attrac- 
tion. And when the particles began to cohere, 
and became solidified, its velocity and attraction 
turned it upon its axis of rotation, which was not 
in the center of its magnitude. As the center of 
gravity was not in the center of magnitude, one 
side would be of higher altitude than tlie other; 
this would give the higher side, greater velocity 



31 

than the lower side; and the centrifugal force 
must have formed a mountain riflge over the 
equator of the high side, and unsolidified matter 
must have collected along this long chain of 
mountains hundreds of thousands of miles high. 
This protubpiance so increased the velocity that 
the highest portion became detached and thrown 
into space, then portion after portion became de- 
tached and thrown, until the high side became 
on a level with the lower side. The portion 
farthest from the center of motion would receive 
the greatest momentum and least density. After 
the first portion was thrown off, it lessened the 
equatorial distance and centrifugal force and 
continued lessening as each portion was thrown 
off. The portions nearer the center that were 
thrown off must have been of denser material, 
and thrown with less force. All the masses that 
were thrown with sufficient momentum became 
self sustaining bodies, and they must have been 
thrown in rapid succession until the sun had so 
decreased its equatorial distance that gravity 
again became the controling power. These two 
great opposing forces of nature, gravity and in- 
ertia, like good and evil, form nature's paradox; 
the result is harmony. These forces must have 
filled planetary spaces with debris of planetary 



a2 

matter. Many otlier poilicnis must liaw Uvu 
thrown (►ff at the same time, hm not having: re- 
ceived sufficient force, fell hack njum ihe snn, 
which melted the surface tn such an rxbnt ihat 
tlie center of gravity was f(Mno d in il r (u iit« r f»f 
maguitu(h^. 



m 



CHAPTER vr. 

From facts which now exist, ill the sohir sjs- 
teai, I am led to believe that in the beginning it 
was ordained that all solar systems, slionhl be de- 
stroyed by fervent heat, and that the material 
matter, after cooling and condensing, shonld form 
an irregnlar globe, and throngh this irregular 
formation it slionld gain a rotary motion, which 
would so gradually increase its velocity, that 
through the course of time it would become so 
great that at the equator the centrifugal force 
w Mild overpower gravity, and large portions 
would be thrown into space, which throngh the 
powers of heat, gravitation and inertia would he 
formed into perfect globes, with self sustaining 
power, of continued revolution around this large 
planet, which is a sun. These suns after tlirow- 
iug off their protuberances wouhl not yet be 
globes with true centers, and must be partially 
melted to form a perfect balance, or. through 
time, they would so increase the centrifugal force 
that they would break from the center and tly into 
f rag neiits. In the first instance the centrifugal 
force was only great enough on tlie high side, to 
overpower gravity. After the Iiigh side was 



34 

thrown off. tlie centers of oriavity an<I magnitude 
were so near together that veh>city. when in- 
creased sufficient to cause the centrifugal force to 
overcome the power (jf gravity, it wouhl act neai- 
ly equal upon the whole surface, and when one 
portion gave way it would cau^e a breakage to the 
center. 

The facts which lead to this theory are: First, 
planets in approaching the sun. so increase their 
velocity, that the centrifugal force (►verpowers 
gravity; second, the earth has been melted, ^nd. 
from appearances, the moon also; third, stars are 
coming and g-»ing from our view: fourth, nebu- 
lous matter, in a glowing state of heat, exists in 
our system of stars; fifth, the asteroids could not 
have been fin-med by any known laws or forees of 
nature, except by the bursting of a planet Uy cen- 
trifugal t)VQ9: sixth, by this theory only (fin a 
reasonable cause be given for the formation of |he 
rings and moons of Saturn; seventh, by no known 
laws or forces of nature, could the moons of t'ra- 
nus have motions tlie reverse of all other plaaets, 
except through this tlieory of the IfcM-mation of 
planets; eighth, all the planets, except the moons of 
Uranus, have orbits nearly in the plane of the sun's 
equator, which cannot be satisfactorily accoTLnteil 
for by any other theory; ninth, no other theory 



35 

can give n clear cause for all the varimi- mntious 
of the solar system: tenth, the nunm lias no water 
or atmosphere.; eleventh, centrifugal foice. grav- 
ity. aiKl heat have pi>wer to have cau-ed all thesn 
formations; twelfth. i\n other theiiry can give a 
reasonable account fdr meteois and aerolites. 

The oblatenes<. or tiattening of the poles <»f 
planets, was caused hy the centrifugal force being 
greatest at the equator, and the matter being in a 
tluid state, was diivt-n t<> the e'lnalitr aixl tlit^ 
aniount of (lei)ression would dt^pend upon tln^ 
density of the planet and the equatorial \Hlocity. 
This oblatenes< of tlie i)lanets. <u-taihs the m<tons 
in their orbits, from perturbations from thn sun 
and other planets. It will be readily >een that 
the moon in pa-sing arournl the earth i< (un^ half 
the time above, and mie-half the time below, the 
earth's orbit: and in passing around it. make< an 
angle <»f over 5", This moving attractifui from 
above and below the earth's poles, together with 
other forces, sustains the poles of the earth in 
their positions. Matter on the earth's -uiface is 
continually changing places. Large rivers are 
running through the ocean, thousands of miles 
long, witli curients swifter than the Mississippi, 
ami three thousand times as large. Tides are 
raised in some places to the height of ovei* seven- 



m 

ty feet. And tlie effect of the eartlfs revolving 
velocity causes tidal waves which are continually 
dashing against the eastern shores of continents: 
and the attractive powers of the sun and inocm 
are continually lifting up and displacing these 
waters, which counteracts the angular power of 
attraction caused through the earth's ohiateness. 



CHAPTER VII. 

It is not supposable that the iDaterial whicli 
fell back upou the sun was sufficient to entirely 
melt so large a gh)be, as the material must have 
come back by degrees and most of it in a scatter- 
ing form, wliicli won hi be a natural consequence 
of all material wjiich was not thrown in line of 
the eqnator. All water, atmosphere and gases 
were vaporized into atoms through excessive heat, 
and radiated into space. 

If the sun had been in a melted state at the 
time of the formation of the planets, they could 
not have received any water, atmosphere or gas, 
for everything of like nature would have been 
held in ethereal space through the radiation of 
heat. Then the sun must have contained all of 
these fluids at the time of their formations, as well 
as other materials which compose the planets. 
But we find no evidence in any of the planets to 
sustain even a reasonable theory of the sun's 
brightness. We have proof that the sun contains 
earth, rocks, minerals, water, atmosphere and 
gases. It is not supposable that the planets re- 
ceived a proportional share of the sun's atmos- 
phere, or water; and as diminution of pressure facil- 



38 

itates evaporation, in like proportion must more 
pressure sustain it in the form of vapor; and as 
the pressure at the sun's surface, is thousands to 
one at the earth's surface, its atmosphere must be 
filled with dense vapor tens of thousands of 
miles above its surface. Consequently ihe sun 
must have another sphere of less density, which 
causes the brightness. It is well known that 
there is a substance, which surrounds the sun's 
brightness, the nature of which we have no knowl- 
edge; but it is different from any known substance. 
It is a material substance, for it reflects light. It 
could not partake of tlie revolving motion of the 
sun's atmosphere, which it envelopes and it must 
be an electric substance, which we may call the 
electrosphere. These two fluids, whose surfaces 
are united, one of which is under great velocity, 
and being resisted by the other, which is at com- 
parative rest, cause great friction producing elec- 
tricity, which ignites the oxygen of the atmos- 
phere and bursts into flames of electrical light, 
which can only be sustained by continual friction. 
The atmosphere having different heights and cur- 
rents, caused by local heat and winds, would not 
cause friction in like amount in all places. The 
flames depending upon the amount of electricity 
would be far less in some places than others. 



39 

These flames would be in patches of irregular form, 
aihl the large ones would create intense light and 
heat, ami would pour down upon tlie clouds be- 
h)W. dispelling them and on reaching the sun's 
surface would cause great heat on the surface; 
and winds wouM ascend with a power that could 
hurl rocks as easily as the earth's cyclone could 
feathers. This would enlarge the opening and 
the winds would feed the flames, and rushing into 
this elc'Ctrosphere would carry up flames to great 
heights. As there would be more or less friction, 
extending over the upper surface of the sun's at- 
m!)sphere, it would be covered by patches of elec- 
tric light, the smallest that could be seen, at the 
earth's distance would be over one hundred miles 
in diameter; and from this size down to sparks, 
giving a sheen of electric light extending from 
pole to pole. Such is the photosphere lying between 
these two fluid spheres, tens of thousands of miles 
above the sun, and millions of miles below the 
upper surface of the electrosphere. This electro- 
sphere is the corona, wliich is seen surrounding 
the sun during total eclipses, and has been esti- 
mated to extend 9,000,0CK) of miles above the pho- 
tosphere. These openings through the clouds, to 
the surface of the sun, when seen from our stand- 
point, would appear as dark spots upon the surface 



40 

of the sun. Sim spots have been estimated to be 
from 500 to 45,000 miles in diameter. In viewing 
the sun from the earth, it is not snpposable that 
spots less than 500 miles in diameter, could be 
seen, as they are depressions through clouds thou- 
sands of miles deep. These openings revolve with 
the sun, but they can not revolve with the same 
velocity, for the air in the column is constantly 
acted upon by intense heat. As heat passes to a 
cooler substance, it is constantly rarefying the at- 
mosphere and absorbing the clouds, which are 
driven against the opening by the centrifugal 
force of the atmosphere. Consequently the sun 
must have far greater velocity than these openings; 
and from facts which have been stated I believe 
that the sun revolves in less than three days, pos- 
sibly in less than one day. This would cause the 
light and heat of the photosphere to pass over the 
surface of the sun with great velocity from east 
to west, relieving the surface from excessive heat 
If it should remain stationary a few moments it 
would melt any known substance. This heat, 
caused by these openings evaporates the water 
and fills the atmosphere with dense clouds of 
moisture. This will account for the periodicity 
of solar spots, as no evaporation can take place on 
the sun. except through extreme heat on account 



41 

of the great pressure ot the atmosphere. The 
centrifugal force of the atmosphere gradually 
grows less from the equator to the poles, where it 
is at zero, cousequently these openings through 
the sun's clouds must move toward the poles, and 
a body of this electric light, starting at the equa- 
tor would naturally be carried eight or ten de- 
grees from the equator before it could dispel the 
clouds through to the sun's surface. 

The circumference of the sun at the parallel 
of 60*^ is only one-half of the circumference at 
the equator. This would make a great difference 
in the amount of friction, and the openings would 
not be apt to be sustained beyond 40^ from the 
equator. 

Professor Faye, in a communication to the 
French Academy of Science, stated that as the re- 
sult of his measurements, the sun spots are de 
pressions beneath the sun's photosphere, varying 
from 20Sm to 40,000 miles. This would be a 
natural result of atmospheric clouds, which are 
continually changing in altitude, from local 
causes. From the evidence of all these facts it is 
evident that the sun is a far smaller and denser 
planet than has ever been calculated, and that, at 
least, it turns on its axis five times faster than all 
former calculations. 



42 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Ill viewing the suii from the eaitli onr altcn- 
lioii is tirst directed to dai k spots on its surface. 
We see a (hirk nucleus or umbra surrounded hy a 
penumbra of ligliter cohn', and sunounding this 
penumbra is seen a Jight«^r rim of light, called 
faculse, also faculse mottlings are seen in different 
forms at various places and here and there are 
darkisli spots which are surrounded by faculse 
mottlings and scattering over the surface aie 
grayish spots and patclies. 

What was supposed to be nucleus is tlie sur- 
face of the sun seen througli the opeiiings, and 
the penumbra was the clouds surrounding the 
openings. The darkish spots were caused by the 
heat dissolving the clouds below sending up cur- 
rents of rarefied air, and if the heat be sufficient 
it would penetrate through their mass and reach 
the sun. These darkish spots will be seen after 
the opening is closed, caused by tlie lower clouds 
closing up first. The grayish spots are really light; 
but the contrast between the excessive bright 
light and the weaker lights gives the appearance 
of grayish light. This appearance will be seen in 
two jets of light, one electric, the other gas; the 



43 

faculae are the flames. The openings to the sun 
are at first small, but the winds feeding the flames 
increase the heat and the openings enlarge rap- 
idly, but when the friction begins to slacken, the 
aperture closes very suddenly. 

The heavy, whirling atmosphere is continually 
driving dense clouds into these openings, which 
rarefy the cool air, and absorb the dense clouds, 
through iatense heat, caused by electric currents 
from the photosphere, acting upon the dense at- 
mosphere and clouds. Hence these openings 
must be very irregular in form and often crossed 
by clouds and would be subjected to rapid and 
instant changes. 

If the snn was continually radiating away 
such an amount of heat as is now claimed by 
some physicists and scientists, it would have con- 
sumed all of its material (which would be neces- 
sary to supply this amount of heat) thousands of 
years ago, even if it had been composed of solid 
carbon, or any chemical combination known at 
the present day. 

Then why suppose that it is a burning mass of 
fire and flame, or a melted mass of lava, which 
radiates such an amount of heat, or that this ra- 
diation of heat could furnish the earth with nec- 
essary warmth and heat, without first warming 



up the space between the eai th and the snn. Then 
we must seek other causes that couhl proihice this 
etTect of liglU and heat, without the radiation of 
light and heat. 

Infinite space is ungravitatnl matter, called 
ether, and this ether fluid underlies all the atomic 
forces and powers of ethereal and material nat- 
ure. In it floats all the starry hosts of heaven: 
and through the course of time, it will thr(»w, one 
hy one, all the vast creations into chaos. 

The creation of worlds was the work of de- 
sign, by infinite intelligence, and all the powers 
and forces that produced them are now govern- 
ing them. All creations were for a special pur- 
pose, and all creations were provided for. Ethe- 
real nature is far below the temperature of ma- 
terial life. And, iu older to produce warmth nec- 
cessary for the sustenance of life special forces 
and powers are at work for the building and sus- 
taining of organic creations. Countless worlds 
are filled with material life, and all life depends 
upon light and heat. Innumerable suns are con- 
tinually at work giving light and heat to all of 
these worlds to sustain the life principle given to 
matter. 

Suns are cool planets, and receive their heat 
and light, the same as all other planets, through 



45 
electric currents from llieir photospheres. The 
photosphere (l(»es not ciaitaiii heat sufficient to 
give the necessary warmth to sustain life on the 
sun by radiation of heat, through its dense at- 
mospliere and chmds. All the heat that the pho- 
tosphere contains is from the electric light, which 
is produced, and sustained by chemical combina- 
tion, through the energy of physical forces. 



46 



CEIAPTER IX. 

Two physical powers are contained in every 
particle of matter. One has power of uniting all 
atoms and particles of matter to a common cen- 
ter, and the other contains the power of dissolv- 
ing all matter into atoms. These powers are 
gravitation and ether. They are governed by 
special laws, which restrict their powers. The 
fluid ether is the principle of electricity, light and 
heat. Gravity is a property of matter and is 
contained in every atom of matter in every possi- 
ble form, both in nebula and solids; while in the 
nebulous state it is confined to atoms, each atom 
being surrounded by this ethereal fluid. Although 
gravity was overpowered by heat while in nebulse. 
it still had the same attractive power. 

We find matter in different combinations and 
forms, which we will designate as solids, liquids 
and gases which compose ponderable matter and 
light, heat and electricity as forming imponder- 
able or ethereal matter. It has been stated that 
(rod created space; if matter was created, then 
space also must have been created, for space 
is a substance. There is no such thing in the uni- 
verse as nothing. Universe means everything 



47 
created, even mind is something and everything 
has a substance. In speaking of matter it is to 
be considered as ponderable unless otherwise des- 
ignated. We find in all forms of matter from the 
diamond to the thinnest gas, infinitesimal inter- 
stices, which are filled with this subtle fluid, 
which surrounds the most minute atom of the 
finest particle of all matter, and while in a passive 
state is the opposite or negative of light and heat. 
We know of no heat so great, but that it might be 
increased, and no cold so low% but that it might be 
reduced still lower. This does not prove that ice 
contains caloric, or that matter can contain latent 
heat. It simply shows that all matter is acted 
upon through the energy of physical forces and 
that matter is held in temperature according to 
the degree of the energy of these forces. 

There is no heat in a natural state; then there 
can be no heat without a cause. It must be con- 
tinually produced through the physical forces to 
keep matter in a state of temperature, to sustain 
the present forms of life. The sun furnishes us 
with a never ceasing supply of light and heat, 
through physical and chemical action. 

Heat and light may be produced by mechanical 
means. The simplest form to produce fire is to 
take two pieces of dry wood, and by rubbing their 



48 

surfaces t(>geth(M-. for a short Uiims lliev will s(K>n 
ignite ami l)urn. This friction proilnces a chem- 
ical action, it excites the eh'ctiic properties of the 
ether, which C(MnhiM(^s with the molecules (kf 
oxygen of the atmosphere and proilnces com- 
l)nsti(Mi. 

The convex lens and concav(» mirror produce 
fire, hy friction, the same as the ruhl)ing of wood, 
only in a different form: they collect the electric 
rays from the sun, and hring them to a focal 
point, which causes frictiim l»y displacing the 
atoms of ethereal and material matter, which aie 
contained in the atmosp!iere and electric rays of 
light. The atmo-phere will produce fire, light 
and flames in the same way. througli pressure di- 
lected to a focal point, and if tlie pn^ssui-e be 
great enough it will melt iron, without the assist- 
ance of any other agejit or material. The atmos- 
phere feeds both tiie flames of life and fire, and 
being part consumed, becomes combined with 
charcoal which is ab-^.orbed by it in the form of 
carbonic acid. It envelopt^s the earth for the dis- 
persion of light, heat and sound. Fire and sound 
cannot be produced with.out an atmosphere. Con- 
sequently no fire can exist, or sound be produced 
or heard on the moon. 

Tills atnu>-p!uM'e, w'lieli we breathe, is com- 



49 
posed of oxygen, nitrogen, carbonic acid and 
vapors. Oxygen composes ahout one-fifth of the 
atmosphere and is magnetic. If it was not for 
nitrogen wliich dihites it, it would consnnie all 
combnstible material. The entire atmosphere 
contains abont one one-thonsandtli part of car- 
bonic acid. 

The present theory in regard to the snn's light 
and heat is, that the sun emits and radiates rays 
of light and heat to the eartli and all the other 
planets. This theory, lii^e many others of the 
present lime, is fonnded npon very insnfficient 
reasons, in fact witliont reason. It is a well 
known fact that a few miles above onr atmos- 
phere the temperature is two hundred and forty 
degrees l>elow zero, and that heat being electric 
has motion and a tendency to diffuse itself equally 
through all substances, until an equilitnium of 
temperature is formed. Then how could heat ra- 
diate througli millions of miles without diffusing 
itself through space. Again, physicists say that 
the atmosphere absoibs a large amount of lieat 
from the sun's rays in passing through it, or life 
would not be endurable. If this was a fact then 
the heat would be greater above than below, 
which is known to be the reverse. 



50 



CHAPTER X. 
We have seen that the earth was once in a 
state of fusion; and we have proof that it has not 
yet cooled off; then we must receive some heat 
from conduction and radiation, and we receive a 
daily heat through the action of the sun; so all 
matter must be at difierent degrees of temperature 
above the natural state of nature, caused through 
the action of physical forces. It is snpposable that 
the sun is still condensing, and as the sun becomes 
less in magnitude its brightness will be increased 
as its atmosphere and electrosphere become more 
concentrated. The sun has been estimated to be 
less bright than the average of the nearer fixed 
stars. So as we lose the interior heat of the earth 
we shall receive more from the increased amount 
of electricity which would be produced by greater 
friction of the concentration of its outer spheres 
and the collection of cometic matter, which will 
fall to its electrosphere. Heretofore it was stated 
that the sun's brightness was an electric light, 
caused by friction between the swift whirling at- 
mosphere, which was enveloped by a stationary 
fluid, the nature of which we have no knowledge. 
This friction produces electricity, which ignites 
the oxygen of the atmosphere (which is magnetic) 



51 
and this fluid being electric keeps up a continuous 
coDQbustion; producing electric light and currents. 
Heat is electric and is always produced by fric- 
tion, whether by chemical action or any other 
means; it displaces the molecules of matter, and 
decomposes and separates the ethereal fluid which 
surrounds every atom of matter, causing an evo- 
lution into electricity, which is the principle and 
cause of heat. Heat batteries have been made 
for producing electricit}\ They are called thermo- 
electric batteries. If two metals are heated, one 
of w^hich is at a lower temperature, and placed 
near together an electric current will be formed 
between them, but if both are of the same metal 
and temperature there will be no current for both 
metals will be positive. This is proof that elec- 
tricity has but one fluid, which is positive, and 
that heat is electric. The principle of light, heat 
and electricity pervades all space and permeates 
every particle of matter, and through physical 
forces they are produced, but there is no such 
thing as latent heat. The action of the sun in 
producing electricity, light and heat, is through 
friction, and is governed by the same physical 
laws, which govern all modes of producing them. 
There is free electricity contained in a more or less 
degree in all material substances; caused by the 



52 

inevitable Qioving of nuitter, and when a body re- 
ceives more llian a natural share it becomes 
cliarged, and like light and heat it works tlirongh 
media, and is disposed to form an (^quilibiinni 
witli all m itter containing less. 

When a cloud becomes electrified the elec- 
tricity will force a passage through the air t(^ a 
cloud or substance containing less, or diffuse itself 
through the atmosphere igniting the oxygen as it 
passes, producing a continuous chain of electric 
light. Electricity always passes through media 
of least resistance, and as the atmosphere contains 
currents of moist and dry air; the dry being a 
bad medium or conductor, and the moist good, its 
course will be in a zig-zag path. Heat in all 
modes and forms is nothing but electricity under 
certain conditions of excitation; and same as 
electricity produces an evolution among ethereal 
atoms which evolve into light and electric currents, 
which acting upon the retina of the eye pro- 
duce the sensation of sight. All lights are pro- 
duced and governed by the same laws; phos- 
phorescent light and all other lights, of every 
description, are caused by more or less heat and 
electric excitement. All lights have prismatic 
colors. This theory does not conflict with the 
laws which govern the spectroscope. The sun is 



53 
an electric machine, and disperses electric cur- 
rents which radiate through space, its natural 
medium, and when these currents come in con- 
tact with gravitated matter, it causes friction by 
exciting an evolution among the atoms of ma- 
terial and ethereal matter, and evolves into light 
heat, which creates electric currents; and light is 
the sensation of these currents. Thus do we re- 
ceive our heat and light through electric currents, 
which after passing through a space of ninety-two 
million miles in perfect darkness and at a tem- 
perature of 240° below zero, produce friction by 
causing excitation among atoms of etherial and 
material matter, and not through rays of light 
and heat from the sun. These currents of elec- 
tricity are continually coming to the earth from 
the sun, planets, stars and remote nebulae; and 
produce electric light heat upon the earth's sur- 
face and through its atmosphere, in proportion to 
their energy. This light heat is at every possible 
point through the atmosphere and earth's surface, 
which is in communication through these cur- 
rents from the sun, planets, stars and nebulae. 
Heat being electric radiates electric currents from 
every point and in all directions from the earth's 
surface and throughout the atmosphere; this to- 
gether with the reflection and refraction forms a 



54 

solid mass of electric currents through the atmos- 
phere, which to our visual sensation is sight and 
illumination. AVithout an atmosphere we would 
have no sensation of sight, only in the direction of 
these worlds of electric light, or directly to an ar- 
tificial light which is electric. All else would be 
a night of perfect darkness, and all lights would 
appear as bright spots on a black background. 

It is supposable that all planetary worlds are 
similar to our own system. We know that the 
stars cause light and heat same as the sun, and 
we have reason to believe that each one of them is 
the center of a solar system, similar to our own. 
Here then are millions of electric powers, contin- 
ually at work, furnishing electricity to supply 
heat and light for the susterance of life. All of 
the heavenly bodies become magnetic depositories, 
and receive the electric currents from suns, by 
which heat, light and sight are produced, and 
these currents of electricity are continually pass- 
ing between all worlds same as the attraction of 
gravity 



CHAPTER XI. 

Fixed stars. Tliey are called fixed stars be- 
cause their distance from the earth is so great 
that they always occupy the same position in the 
firmament. Although the earth makes an angle 
of one hundred and eighty-four millions of miles 
in each revolution around the sun, it does not 
change their relative positions. Some of these 
stars have a parallax and their distances have 
been calculated. 

They are classed according to their brightness, 
the brightest are called stars of the first magni- 
tude, the next stars in brightness are called stars 
of the second magnitude and so on up to the sixth 
magnitude. These six magnitudes are seen with- 
out the assistance of the telescope. By the varia- 
tions in their brightness the telescope finds them 
so far distant that they are classed as high as the 
eighteenth magnitude. Other stars that we see 
are planets of the solar system and revolve around 
the sun. The apparent size and brightness of the 
fixed stars is owing to the difference in their 
distances. 

Sir John Herschel computed the distance of 
stars at not less than nineteen trillion two hun- 



56 

rlrecl billion of miles. The nearest fixed star 
to us is Alpha Centauri, which is fourteen 
billion of miles distant. Light from this star 
would require nearly three and one-half years in 
reaching us, and Draconis a star that has a paral- 
lax would require one hundred and twenty-nine 
years. Such immense distances are beyond our 
comprehension, still they are our near neighbors; 
some of these stars are so far away that it takes 
their light five thousand years to reach us. 0, 
Earth, thou insignificant part of creation, you 
could not be seen by such eyes as ours from your 
own brother planet, Jupiter. V>'e have evidence 
sufficient to form a belief that these stars are as 
far apart, from each other, as the nearest one is 
from us. This only comprises our own stellar sys- 
tem, and thousands of stellar systems have been 
discovered similar to our own. 

Sir John Herschel published a catalogue of 
over five thousand different patclies of nebulae. 
Some of these patches of nebulae are so distant 
that light traveling at nearly 200,000 miles a sec- 
ond, would be thirty million years in reaching us. 
Let us stop and consider about this long distance, 
and see if we can reconcile it with the present 
theories of the transmission of light and heat. 
There are two theories of the transmission of 



04 

light and heat at the present time. One is the 
emission theory advocated by Newton and La 
Place; which is, that light consists of infinitesimal 
particles of matter shot forth from himinous 
bodies. This theory does not accord with onr pres- 
ent views of force and motion. 

The undnlatory theory is, that light consists of 
w^aves, or vibrations, transmitted throngh the me- 
dium ether, and that luminous bodies impart a 
motion of vibration to this ether, which it trans- 
mits. This is the theory of Huyghenes, Fresnel, 
Young, Mains and many others. This theory is 
now adopted by most ali physicists. Neither of 
these theories appears very reasonable and, in 
fact, they look very unreasonable. We have no 
reason to suppose that matter could be shot or re- 
pelled through space in every direction with such 
a velocity; or that waves or vibrations could be 
so produced as to last even five thousand years, 
w^hich time is required for light to reach us from 
some of our own galaxy of stars. 

Again, it is against all knovvn laws, that this 
light and heat could remain five thousand years 
instead of 30,000,000, in a medium 240^ below 
zero, Fahrenheit. We know oi but one agent, or 
substance that could pass from one planet to an- 
other with such astonishing rapidity, and that is 



58 

electricity. We have proof that electric currents 
pass between the earth and sun. The periodicity 
of the large amount of solar spots, causes mag- 
netic phenomena upon the earth's surface. They 
correspond with the variations of the magnetic 
needle and number of auroras, and it is supposed 
that they are connected with meteorological phe- 
nomena. 

What we have been calling nebulae are, in fact, 
most all of them star systems, similar to our gal- 
axy of stars. They were once supposed to be neb- 
ulous matter; but after getting stronger tele- 
scopes, they were resolved into stars, when more 
nebulae was found which could not be resolved 
into stars; but by getting more powerful tele- 
scopes, they too were all resolved and others 
found. 

There seems to be no end to worlds. All the 
so called nebulae found outside of our system of 
stars only depends upon our ability to resolve 
them into stars. If one of these stars of the far 
distant nebulae should be thrown into nebulous 
matter, we could not perceive it at such a dis- 
tance. Nebulae is the matter of a dead star system, 
and not a system of stars, and of course can only 
be seen in our own system of stars> There are 
found in our system, stars called nebulous stars. 



- 59 
This uebulosity seeo, is either the electrosphere, 
sarrouudiDg the photosphere, as seen surrounding 
our sun in total eclipses, or more probable me- 
teorides, same as surround our sun. 

Our galaxy of stars is in the form of a broad 
ring, something of the foim of a double convex 
lens, and is filled from center to rim with stars at 
equal distances apart, our sun being near tlie 
center. When we view them from our standpoint 
we are looking through trillions of miles of space, 
filled with stars having the appearance of being 
close together and of different size and bright- 
ness. This does not agree with the theory of a 
central sun, but we are not following old theories; 
we are taking everything as we find it, then rea- 
soning from analogy and natural laws the most 
probable effect that would be produced from a 
natural cause. 

We cannot suppose that there are any central 
suns. We know that there is no central sun to our 
galaxy of stars for our sun is near the center and 
we know that it is far smaller than many stars 
that we are acquainted with; then why suppose 
that other sidereal systems have a central sun, or 
that there is a grand central sun around which 
all of these stellar systems revolve. But all sys- 
tems have common centers, around which they 



m 

revolve, and there is a grand central power of at- 
traction, bat this point is not defined to a material 
center like a hub to a wheel, but is the unity of 
power in their central point of gravity whicli is 
the most binding form of strength and unity. 

There are among the fixed stars groups of 
double, triple and quadruple stars which revolve 
around a common center of attraction; that is, 
they revolve around each other. These stars were 
originally a solar system, similar to our own, but 
far larger, with a sun and planets, and when the 
system was thrown into nebulous vapors, the ma- 
terial was diffused to a very great extent before 
cooling sufficient to re-form, and when partially 
cooled the particles commenced collecting around 
dense centers and by their mutual attraction 
were drawn towards each other and through the 
laws of gravity, inertia and motion they revolve 
around their centers of united gravity and as they 
were the same material they became self lu- 
minous, or suns. 



61 



CHAPTER XII. 
The powers of gravity acting upon the uni- 
verse of worlds which holds them in their position 
cannot be equal; consequent!}^ all stellar systems 
must revolve around centers of motion, as motion 
is a property of matter, and there can be no grav- 
itated matter without motion. 

There are stars that show variable lights; this 
is the case with our sun. This variation of light 
is caused by sun spots and is periodical. The star 
Algol is a variable star, but the variations being 
so regular and often, the variation must be caused 
by a dark planet revolving between us and the 
star, partially eclipsing it from our view. In this 
star, which is a sun, we have proof of the exist- 
ence of other solar systems. All worlds had a be- 
ginning and in that beginning was placed ma- 
terial for their ending. 

In the course of time they will all die, as ever 
was and ever will be the case with all material 
beings and things. Only the principle of life can 
never die. Bright stars have faded from our view 
while new ones have come. We have watched 
their bright lights die out from the family of stars, 
and seen new born worlds. Like trees in the forest 



62 

they die out one by one while others are forming 
to take their place. Thus has it been, and ever 
will be, from the first creation, a continuous change 
of matter. 

The ether fluid which fills ail space has a con- 
sistency which causes a slight resistance to the 
moving of planets; this resistance will cause 
them to move slower in their orbits, but millions 
of years must come and go before the first frac- 
tional part of a second could be discovered in 
their motions. For the last two thousand years 
the earth has not varied a perceivable fraction of 
a second in its yearly course around the sun. But 
this slight resistance, like light drops of water 
falling upon the hardest rocks, will, in time, cause 
them to pass away. The effect which would be 
produced by a planet moving slower in its orbit 
would be a contraction of the orbit and a nearer 
approach to a circle. This continuous resistance 
to the moving of the planets will, through the 
course of time, bring all their orbits to a circle, 
which will cause them to fall directly to the 
sun. It has been stated that Xeptune was the 
first planet thrown from the sun's equator, and 
received the greatest momentum; consequently 
it was the farthest planet from the sun, and now- 
having less momentum moves slower in its orbit. 



63 

and as it is of light material it will be the first 
planet to show the effects of deca\^ 

A heavenly body cannot continue to pass 
through space only in an eccentric form, which 
gives it a fall, causing accelerated momentum, 
audits inertia sustains it. It will be seen that 
in the course of time Xeptune will be moving 
with less momentum in its orbit, and it will be 
continually contracting its orbit and approaching 
nearer to a circle, and will continue to do so as 
long as it has a momentum force, which will be 
expended at the moment it contracts to a circle. 
This will occur at a point opposite, but nearer to 
the sun, where it first made a revolution, and then 
it will fall directly to the sun; like a ball thrown 
perpendicular into the air, when its momentum 
is spent, it hesitates a moment, then falls to the 
power of attraction. When this time occurs all 
of the planets will be moving with decreasing 
momentum in their orbits. Uranus and Saturn 
will have contracted their orbits nearly to a circle, 
and as Xeptune falls through the plane of orbits 
it will carry all of the planets with it to the sun. 
This will vaporize the whole solar system to 
atoms, and another star will be stricken from the 
galaxy of heaven. But this excessive heat cannot 



64 

long remain in nebulae, in space 240^ below zero, 
Fahrenheit. In the course of a few thousand 
j^ears a new star will appear. But it will soon 
form attendant planets, which will cause its 
bright light to go out, for a time as was the case 
with our sun. Thus one by one will all of the si- 
dereal suns pass through this ordeal of excessive 
heat, and will again be reformed. This great power 
of nature, continually exerted in expanding solar 
systems, and then re-forming them, must give 
force to motion, or an energy to the force of grav- 
ity, sufficient to balance this slight resistance, or 
else through great cycles of time all stellar sys- 
tems will result in nebulae. 



65 



CHAPTER XIII. 

ZEOLITES, METEORS AND SHOOTING STARS. 

The investigations within the last fifty years 
prove that planetary matter, in the form of im- 
mense masses of innumerable small bodies, far 
too small to be observed by the telescope are re- 
volving around the sun, near or within the earth's 
orbit. The main proof of this is in the fall- 
ing of meteors, seroiites and shooting stars into 
the earth's atmosphere. It is also proved that all 
of them have a common origin, and that their 
difference is only one of magnitude. Only the 
larger ones reach the earth's surface, the smaller 
ones being consumed through excessive heat in 
passing through the atmosphere. 

It has been shown that the atmosphere under 
pressure would melt iron. The pressure of a 
force of 97 feet per second raises the temperature 
one degree Fahrenheit, and the increase of tem- 
perature is always in proportion to the energy of 
the force, and the force is in proportion to the 
square of the velocity. Xow if these bodies are 
of the same material, the law of gravity would 
cause the small bodies to fall through the atmos- 
phere with the same speed as the larger ones. 



66 

They probably fell many thousands of miles, 
which would cause great velocities, and the en- 
ergy of the force would be the same as though 
they were stationary and the atmosphere was di- 
rected upon them with the same force. If the at- 
mosphere was of the same density throughout the 
upper regions that it has at the earth's surface it 
would consume any known substance In passing 
through it with such great velocity. 

The smallest of these bodies are the shooting 
stars, which are continually falling nisht and 
day. They can be seen on any clear night. The next 
in size are called meteors, and those that are large 
enough to reach the surface of the earth vvithout 
being all consumed are called aerolites All of these 
unseen bodies revolving through space are called 
meteorides. Sometimes these large ones burst 
with a loud report. In 1860 one of these aerolites 
burst and fell in Ohio. The explosion was heard 
seventy-five miles, and at places fifty to sixty 
miles from the explosion it shook the earth like 
an earthquake. Several fragments of this aerolite 
were found, one of which weighed one hundred 
and three pounds, and struck the earth with suffi- 
cient force to sink it three feet below the surface. 
This piece is now in the cabinet of Marietta 
college. The cause of theee explosions is the sud- 



67 
flen cliaDge from extreme cold to intense heat. 
It has been estimated through differeot sources 
and processes of calculation that the ethereal 
space above our atmosphere is at least 240'^ below 
zero, Fahrenheit. INlany kinds of rocks at a low 
temperature thrown into a hot fire will explode 
with a loud report. This then accounts for the 
explosion of aerolites. 

The earth in its yearly course around the sun, 
in certain parts of its orbit approaches nearer to 
the orbits of these masses of meteorides and at- 
tracts them in larger numbers than it does when 
in other parts of its orbit. About November Uth, 
. there is always a more briliant display of meteors, 
also August 10 there are more shooting stars than 
usual. These small bodies must be continually 
perturbed by the attraction of the planets as they 
pass around the sun, and comets must effect them 
materially, especially if they pass near their line 
of orbits, and they must be continually changing 
their orbits. 

It has been observed for some time that in 
about every thirty-four years there is a far greater 
display of meteors in November. This fact shows 
that these small bodies are in a continuous ring 
revolving around the sun, and at some parts of 
this ring they are in a greater mass, and that the 



68 

earth meets this mass at the same point, once in 
about thirty-four years. In times of great showers 
of these meteors tliey radiate from one point in 
the sky, and keep their relative position to tlie 
fixed stars. This proves that these meteors radi- 
ate from one mass and move in orbits from west 
to east. 

It has always been stated that the atmosphere 
only extended about forty-five miles above the 
earth's surface. This calculation w\^s made from 
the fact that the visible reflection of the sun's 
light is only seen at about this distance, but we 
have evidence that the atmosphere extends six 
hundred miles at least, and probably far more. 
During meteoric show'ers they have been known 
to ignite at different altitudes from one to over 
five hundred miles above the earth. Professor 
Olmstead says of the shower of 1833, they were 
not less than 2,238 miles above the earth. Most 
all of them are consumed before they reach the 
point of reflected light. 

It has never been satisfactorily shown how 
iron, stone and other subsatnces came into space. 
It was at first supposed that these bodies were 
thrown from volcanoes in the moon. It was ad- 
vocated that a force sufficient to throw them 
seventy miles would carry them out of the attrac- 



69 

tioii of the moon, and they woukl fall to the earth; 
that some of the earth's volcanoes had thrown 
bodies with sufficient velocity to accomplish this 
on the moon. But it was afterward found that 
the moon had no existing volcanoes. The next 
theory was that they w^ere formed in the atmos- 
phere from material existing in a sublimated state. 
This was found objectionable for the reason that 
gases, when in contact must mix, and gases neces- 
sary to form these substances, could not remain in 
the air unmixed. Another theory w^as that they 
were fragments of an exploded planet. This theory 
was .untenable for various reasons, which were 
soon brought out. They could not possibly have 
their origin from nebulous matter, for they could 
not have coalesced in masses of such fine division; 
then where did they come from? This question 
has never been answered. 

From all of these facts it is apparent that 
these November showers of meteors are moving 
between the earth's orbit, and that of Venus, and 
that they are moving in orbits less eccentric than 
the earth's, which would cause their velocity to be 
more uniform through their orbits. As they hold 
their relative positions, for hours, to 'the fixed 
stars, and radiate from one point, it is evident 
that they are moving io the same direction, that 



70 

the earth moves, and with nearly the same ve- 
locity at this point of the earth's orbit. If this 
radiating point moved in any other direction, or 
moved slower, it would appear to move west faster 
than the fixed stars, as the earth at this point of 
its orbit is moving considerable over 68,000 miles 
per hour. These bodies moving inside of the 
circle w^ould not have to move as fast as the earth 
to hold their positions. The earth in going from 
its aphelion to perihelion is continually gaining 
accelerated velocity through its elliptical form of 
orbit, and as these meteors are moving in orbits 
less eccentric, they could not gain the accelera- 
tion that the earth was receiving; consequently 
in a few hours the earth would leave them behind. 
It has been shown that planetary matter was 
thrown from the sun's equator into planetary spaces 
before the planets were formed. All the material 
that did not collect with the large bodies before 
making a revolution around the sun, became self 
sustaining bodies. It is not supposable, or even 
probable, that this planetary luatter, in any great 
extent, extends as far as the orbit of Mars. Within 
the orbit of Venus these meteorides are in very large 
numbers, and form a continuous ring around the 
sun. Their reflection is called the zodiacal light. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Comets are of a different material from any 
material substance with which we are acquainted. 
It is noc an unwarrantable hypothesis to suppose 
that cometary matter is of the same material as 
the sun's electrosphere, which surrounds the sun's 
brightness. When the solar system was in neb- 
ulae this matter, being of a different material, 
must have expanded far away and beyond the 
more dense matter of planetary material, and 
floated in light, fleecy and feathery clouds, in 
patches of exceedingly wide spaces. As soon as 
the heat radiated away, all planetary matter col- 
lected in one body through the force of attraction, 
and by condensing soon formed into a solid mass, 
and by farther cooling and condensing formed the 
planet sun. These light patches of cometary 
matter, w^hich did not approach the sun before 
the planets were formed, became wandering bodies 
without a fixed and secure path. All of these are 
under the power of solar attraction, and cannot 
leave the solar system any more than one of the 
planets. 

Through a course of time all of these light 
bodies had contracted to their present density and 



form, and coiniiienced falling to the snn. But 
thousands of these small patches of gas did not 
reach the sua before the planets were formed. 
And now all of these bodies in approaching the 
sun were drawn to one side and prevented from 
falling to the sun. Tlie law of falling bodies 
gave these light masses the same velocity that a 
planet would acquire in falling through the same 
space. This gave these light bodies of gas, which 
we know as comets, a momentum force sufficient 
to carry them back to the point of starting but no 
farther. 

Comets commenced their fall to the central 
power of attraction of the solar system, from an 
immense distance and their orbits are in propor- 
tion to their fall, and their angular momentum, 
which they receive from the planets in passing 
through the solar system, which draws them to one 
side and prevents them from falling to the sun; 
consequently their orbits are very elongated, and 
are either in the form of the parabola or hyperbola 
conic sections. This form of orbit is not durable, 
and cannot alwaj's remain in this form. The 
planets which cause their angular motion from 
the sun are moving in their orbits, and attract 
them differently in their approaching and reced- 
ing to and from the sun, and it is an impossibilit}^ 



73 
for anj^ comet to pass twice in one patli. 

Comets approach the solar system from all 
conceivable directions, from the east, west, north 
and south, and from above and below. They are 
forever receiving great perturbations from the 
planets in their course around the sun, both in com- 
ing and going, which is continually changing their 
line of direction. This resistance to their fall 
and the resistance wiiich tbey receive in passing 
through the sun's electrosphere, cause them to 
shorten their hyperbola orbits, to that of a par- 
abola, and from the parabola, to that of nearer 
the form of the ellipse. But they will cease to 
exist long before they could revolve in the form 
of the ellipse, for in every revolution they will 
move with less momentum, and approach nearer 
and nearer to the sun, until their inertia is not 
sufficient to resist the power of attraction and 
they will fall to the sun. Possibly some may fall 
to the planets without any apparent or injurious 
effect. There is no doubt but that comets have 
fallen to the earth without any injurious effect. 

HAS THE EARTH PASSED THROUCiH THE TAILS OF 
COMETS? 

"It has been asserted by some astronomers that 
the earth has on several occasions passed through 



74 

the tail of a comet, and in proof of this fact sev- 
eral cases of a singular or peculiar kind of fog 
have been noticed at several periods. The first of 
which any record is made was that of 1783. It be- 
gan on the 18th of June and at places very re- 
mote from each other. It extended from Africa 
to Sweden and throughout North and South Amer- 
ica. This fog continued more than a month. It 
did not appear to be carried to different places by 
the atmosphere; because in some places it came 
on with a north wind and at others with a south 
or east wind. It prevailed in the highest Alps as 
well as in the lowest valleys. The rains which 
were very abundant in June and July did not ap- 
pear to disperse it in the least. In Languedoc its 
density was so great that the sun did not become 
visible in the morning till it was twelve degrees 
above the horizon; it appeared very red during 
the rest of the day and mis^ht be looked at with 
the naked eye. This fog or smoke had a disagree- 
able smell and was entirely destitute of any 
moisture, whereas most fogs are moist; besides all 
this there was one remarkable quality in the fog 
or smoke of 1783, it appeared to possess a phos- 
phoric property or a light of its own. We find by 
the accounts of some observers, that it afforded, 
eA'en at midnight, a light equal to that of the full 



«0 

moon, and which was sufficient to enable a person 
to see objects distinctly at a distance of two hun- 
dred yards; and to remove all doubts as to the 
source of this light, it is recorded that at the time 
there was a new moon. 

"Another remarkable fog in 1831, wdiich ex- 
cited the public mind in all quarters of the globe, 
resembled so much that of 1783, that the descrip- 
tion given of it, applies to that of 1831. 

"Now let us look at the facts. It must be ac- 
knowledged by all that these fogs originated from 
some uncommon cause. Xow the next question is 
to what causes shall we attribute the fogs of 1783 
and 1831. Some have supposed that they were 
caused by irruptions of Mount Hecla in Iceland; 
others have advanced the idea that an immense 
fire ball in penetrating our atmosphere was there 
but partially ignited, and that torrents of smoke 
were deposited in the higher regions of our at- 
mosphere and finally diffused through it. 

"These explanations are very unsatisfactory. If 
the fogs were actually produced by the earth's 
passing through any portion of a comet, we have 
no cause of fear from these bodies which have 
been for centuries a terror and dread to mankind 
generally. We will concede that these fogs 
were produced by comets, until we have a better 



70 

explanation of tlieir origin." 

Comets are numbered by hundreds of thou- 
sands, but the most of them are so small that they 
can only be seen through the aid of the telescope, 
and thousands of them pass above the horizon in 
the day time, and cannot be seen on account of 
the bright reflection of light through our atmos- 
phere. Scarcely a month in the year but they 
are seen. 

It was claimed by Sir Isaac Newton, Sir John 
Herschel, Professor Nichol and, as far as I know, 
by all scientists and astronomers that comets of 
hyperbola orbits never visit our system but once, 
and then fly off in straight lines, until they pass 
out of the attraction of the solar system and go 
to revolve around suns in the far distant heavens. 
It is a well known fact that gravitation causes all 
the motions of the heavenly bodies, and it would 
be as impossible for a body of the solar system to 
pass beyond its attraction, as it would be for a 
body not to obey the law of attraction. This the- 
ory would recognize that a power would contain a 
reserved force, which would be greater than itself. 
These comets receive their motions through the 
power of .attraction, which causes them to fall to 
this power, and through accelerated velocity, and 
the angular attraction which they receive ic pass- 



\ng tlirough the >y^tem of planets, gives their in- 
ertia a conservation of force, sufficient to resist 
the power of gravity, and without further resist- 
ance to carry them baclv to nearly the point from 
which they started. 

Most of the comets are small, some of them are 
only twenty or thirty miles in diameter, and but 
a few that have a nucleus over two thousand 
miles in diameter. Some of these comets have 
appendages or tails which stream out behind 
them in their approach, and keep in an opposite 
direction from the sun while turning in perihelion 
and going before it, as it recedes from the sun. 

It has always been claimed by all astronomers 
and physicists, that this light is produced by re- 
palsion or expansion of cometary matter in the 
form of vapor, caused through excessive heat, or 
repulsion of the sun. I will here quote from the 
American Science Series on Astronomy, which is 
now taught in all our schools. 

"The tail of the comet is not a permanent ap- 
pendage, but is composed of the masses of vapor 
which we have already described as ascending 
from the nucleus, and afterward moving away 
from the sun. The tail which we see on one even- 
ing is not absolutely the same we saw the evening 
before, a portion of the latter having been dissi- 



pated, wliilo new inalti»r has taken its place, as 
with the stream of siiK^ke truiii a steamship. The 
motion of the vaporous matter which formvS the 
tail heing always away from the su!i, there seems 
to he a repulsive force exerted by the sun upon 
it. The form of the comet's tail, on the supposi- 
tion tliat it is composed of matter driven away 
from the sun witli a uniformly accelerated veloc- 
ity, has been several times investigated, and found 
to represent the observed form of tlie tail so near- 
ly as to leave little doubt of its correctness. We 
may, therefore, regard it as an observed fact that 
the vapor which rises from the nucleus of the 
comet is repelled by the sun instead of being at- 
tracted toward it, as larger masses are. No ade- 
quate explanatiou of this repulsive force has ever 
been given." 

This is acknowledging a physical power of 
which we have no knowledge, which is not admis- 
sible. It was not my intention, in writing this 
small effort, to go into details or calculations 
which would draw^ the reader's mind from the 
main points of facts, and I will only say in regard 
to the peculiarities of comets, that they are small 
bodies of very light gas, condensed through ex- 
treme cold; and are continually changing in dens- 
ity, motions and appearance, through well known 



79 
physical forces, aiul eventually they will, all of 
them, fall to the sun. without any perceivable 
effect. 

If the moon vvere vaporized and thrown into 
space with a density sufficient to produce a re- 
jected light equal to the light produced by these 
comets, it would not cover the space that is occu- 
pied by some of these comets' tails. The comet of 
1^43 approaclied the sun with a tail 200,OOCUX)C) 
mites long, and came within (►ne-foiirteenth part 
of the sun's diameter to its surface and passed its 
perihelion at the rate of 36H miles per second. 
N(»w if this tail was matter and connected to the 
comet, the outer portion of this tail would have 
to swing around with the velocity of light. This 
could not be done by any known powei of nature. 
Then this matter must have been left behind and 
forever lost to the comet. Then again, it would 
take light over sixteen minutes to pass from the 
comet to the end of the tail. It is not possible 
that the sun could repel such a body of matter, 
with the velocity of light without diminution 
of the volume of matter, which it was re- 
pelling. This comet passed its perihelion around 
the sun's semi-diameter in about seventy minutes, 
and flew into unknown space with its tail of 
200,OCK3,OC)0 miles long streaming out ahead, as it 



80 

receded from the ?ini witlioiit ihe lea^^t apparent 
dimiQution of iiueleus, coma, or tail. The tlieory 
of comets' tails being composed of matter which 
reflected light, was the only theory that could be 
advanced under the present theory of the sun's 
emitting light and heat, and the laws that govern 
light and heat. It was kni>wn that the sun'^ 
light did not shine in space, and that there was 
no reflected light without matter. Then how- 
could this light shine in space without its being 
matter. 

Here is all the evidence necessary to prove mv 
theory of the cause of the sun's light and heat, 
and the laws and forces which produce and govern 
all light and heat. This theory is, that the sun is 
an electric machine, which radiates electric cur- 
rents that excite and cause an eAolution among 
ethereal and material atoms, which evolve into 
lieat and light. Electric currents pa-- from 
the sun through all cometary matter, and in 
passing through it cause a certain amount of 
heat and light, the same as it does in passing 
through our atmosphere. Some of these com- 
ets have a nucleus of such transparency and 
density as to reinforce the energy of these electric 
currents, sufficient to disturb the latent principle 
of electricity, which lies dormant in the state of 



81 
nature. These currents now being doubly charged, 
cause an excitation among the ethereal atoms, 
which evolve light lieat similar to phosphores- 
cent light. Comets are continuallj^ changing in 
form and density, and may form a nucleus that 
would produce two, three, or more streams of 
light, or they might be so constituted, as to throw 
the light to one side of their line direction, and as 
they are cliangeable bodies, so must be their light. 
A straight line of light projected in space, and 
brouglit to a focal point of vision, forms a curva- 
ture in proportion to the convexity of the eye of 
the beholder. The sky that is brought within the 
line of vision, converges to the eye, which gives 
the appearance of the sky as being concave to this 
point of vision. The rainbow is a straight hori- 
zontal line of light, caused by the sun's rays pass- 
ing through falling rain, and is projected against 
the background of the sky, which gives it the ap- 
pearance of an arch. 

Comets whose orbits are near, or within the 
orbital plane, will not be so much drawn out of 
their paths, in each revolution around the sun, 
bnt that their course, and time of their perihelion 
may be very nearly calculated. 



82 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE OPINIONS OF SCIENTIFIC MEN HITHERTO ON 
THE CAUSE OF THE MOTIONS OF THE STARS. 

Newton.— "But yet I must profess I know no 
sufficient natural cause <»f the earth's diurnal ro- 
tation. The planets and comets will constantly 
pursue their revolutions in orbits given in kind 
and position, according to laws above explained. 
But though these bodies may indeed persevere in 
their orbits by the mere laws of gravity, yet they 
could by no means have at first derived the regu- 
lar position of the orbits themselves from these 
laws." 

Mary Sommeryille.— "This highly intellect- 
ual lady, writing of 'the primitive cause which 
determined the planetary motions,' says, that 'La- 
place has computed the probability to be as 4,000,- 
000 to 1, that all the motions of the planets, both 
of rotation and revolution, were at once imparted 
by an original common cause, of which we know 
neither the nature nor the epoch.'" 

Lardner.— "This author, in speaking of the 
planets and satellites, says: 'They obey the laws 
of gravitation, but they do much more. They 
all move in ellipses; those ellipses differ but very 
little from being circles; their orbits increase in 
distance from the sun nearly in regular progres- 
sion; those orbits are nearly in the same plane, 
and their movements are in the same direction. 



83 

Accordance so wondrous, and order so admirable, 
could not be fortuitous, and, not being enjoined 
by the conditions of the law of gravitation, must 
either be ascribed to the immediate dictates of 
the Omnipotent Architect of the universe above 
all laws, or to some general laws superinduced 
upon gravitation, which escaped the sagacity of 
the discoverer of that principle.'" 

NiCHOL.— "He declares that not one of these 
remarkable arrangements in the solar system 
owes its origin to gravity. For instance, gravity 
cannot account for the fact that all the various 
orbs, primary and secondary, move in ellipses ap- 
proaching very nearly to the circular form; nor 
the fact that all these orbs revolve in the same di- 
rection around the sun; nor the fact that they all 
rotate on their axes in the same direction; nor 
that equally singular ordinance which has con- 
fined so many bodies within a brief distance of 
the plane of the sun's equator. It appears a neces- 
sary conclusion, that the cause of the foregoing 
arrangements is something profounder even than 
Newton's principle; perhaps some remotest fact in 
the history of the universe." 

KiRKWOOD.— "In taking the most cursory view^ 
of the solar system, we cannot fail to notice the 
following interesting facts: 

1. fhe suu rotates from west to east. 

2. The planets move nearly in the plane of 
the sun's equator. 

3. The orbital motions of planets and satel- 
lites are from west to east. 

^. The rotary motions are in the same direction 



84 

5. Tlip rings of Satiiifj move in llie same di- 
rection. 

<). The i)lanetary oiliits are i:early ciuiiiar. 

7. The coiiietaiy orbits have different pecu- 
liarities, etc. 

Xone of these facts are accounted f(U' by the 
law of gravitation. Tiie sun's atti action can have 
uo influence whatever in determining either the 
direction of the planet's motion or the eccen- 
tricity of its orbit." 

Mitchell.— "In tlie outset of this description 
of the nebular theory, we must clearly distinguish 
between those phenomena for which the law of 
universal gravitation is responsible and those 
other plienomena of the constitution of the solar 
system in the explication of which this law has 
never been employed. The solar system once be- 
ing organized as it now is, all its existent and 
daily phenomena are susceptible of explanation 
from the theory of gravity. Here, however, the 
domain of this law^ is bounded; or, at least, has 
hitherto been bounded. There remains a multi- 
tude of inquiries demanding answers, for which, 
however, gravitation has not been deemed ac- 
countable. For example, why do all the planets 
and satellites revolve in orbits so nearly circular? 
So far as gravitation is concerned, they might as 
well have revolved in paraboles or hyperboles. 
Why do all the planets circulate about the sun in 
the same direction? How comes it that the planes 
of the planetary orbits are nearly coincident? 
Grravitation renders no reply. Again the planets 
all rotate in the same direction in wiiich they re- 
volve. The satellites follow the same analogies, 
and even the sun itself is in like manner found to 
rotate on his axis in the same general direction." 



Page 14, Line 7— Instead of nebula U!;^e nebulae. 

*' 15, " 11— Instead of nebula exists read 
nebuise exist 

" 19. *• 3 Instead of momentum use mo- 
menta. 

*' 53, *' 8— Read produced by these currents. 

" 61, " 1— Should read power of. 

" 64, " 1— Instead of nebuiaB use nebula. 

** 66, " 7— Instead of has use is. 

" 67, " 26-~Should read part of. 

" 69, *' 14-Should read have had. 

" 73, '* 8— Instead of fall use momentuui, 

" 76, " 22— Instead of would use might.